Consumer Reponses to Price Discrimination: An Experimental Study

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Business Management, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Management, Faculty of Management, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

3 Department of Information Science and Knowledge Studies, Kharazmi University, Karaj, Iran


Pricing has always been an important component of marketing. Price discrimination is one of the attractive pricing strategies to get the most out of the consumers. But these policies can have a direct impact on consumer behavior and trigger different reactions. In this study, the role of price discrimination, inequality status and reference price in consumer behavior is discussed. By conducting two experimental studies, 540 management students have engaged and collaborated projects, the impact of these variables on perceived unfairness, negative emotions, repurchase intention, positive word-of-mouth and perceived value in the shopping malls industry was studied. The results showed that different levels of price discrimination produced different responses from consumers. However, indirect price discrimination (using membership fees) is the best option for enforcing this policy. Internal reference prices can also moderate consumer reactions. The results of this study can be used as a practical model for shopping malls (especially for use in customer clubs).


ایمان، محمدتقی و اثنی‌عشری، فریده (1383). بررسی عوامل موثر بر بیگانگی سازمانی در ایران (مورد مطالعه: سازمان‌های اداری شهر شیراز). نشریه پژوهشی دانشگاه اصفهان، شماره 17، 30-1.
دانایی‌فرد، حسن و مظفری، زینب (1387). ارتقاء روایی و پایایی در پژوهش‌های کیفی مدیریتی: تأملی بر استراتژی‌های ممیزی پژوهشی. نشریة پژوهش‌های مدیریت، دوره 1، شماره 1، 162-131.
شیخاوندی، داور (۱۳۷۳). جامعه‌شناسی انحرافات، گناباد: نشر مرندیز.
عابدی جعفری، حسن؛ تسلیمی، محمدسعید؛ فقیهی، ابوالحسن و شیخ‌زاده، محمد (1390). تحلیل مضمون و شبکه مضامین: روشی ساده و کارآمد برای تبیین الگوهای موجود در داده­های کیفی.  اندیشه مدیریت راهبردی، دوره 5، شماره 2، 198-151.
فریدون، وحیدا؛ انصاری، محمد اسماعیل؛ حقیقتیان، منصور و بزمی، مهناز (1393). ارزیابی جامعه‌شناختی بیگانگی شغلی و تأثیرات آن بر فرهنگ سازمانی در سازمان‌های آموزشی (مورد مطالعه: کارکنان ادارات آموزش و پرورش مشهد)»، نشریه جامعه‌شناسی کاربردی، دوره 25، شماره 2، 14-1.
محسنی تبریزی، علیرضا (1370). بیگانگی: مفهوم‌سازی و گروه‌بندی تئوری‌ها در حوزه جامعه‌شناسی و روان‌شناسی، نشریه نامه علوم اجتماعی، دوره 2، 73 -25.
نادری‌بنی، محمود؛ بردبار، غلامرضا و پزشکی نجف‌آبادی، فرشته (1394). تبیین بیگانگی کاری با ویژگی‌های شغلی و حمایت سازمانی، دوفصلنامه کاوش‌های مدیریت بازرگانی، دوره 7، شماره 14، 190- 169.
Banai, M., & Reisel, W. D. (2003). A test of control–alienation theory among Cuban workers. Management Research: Journal of the Iberoamerican Academy of Management, 1(3), 243-252.
Calista, D. (1994). Policy implementation. Encyclopedia of Policy Studies edited by S. Nagel, New York: Marcel Dekker.
DeHart-Davis, L., & Pandey, S. K. (2005). Red tape and public employees: Does perceived rule dysfunction alienate managers?. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 15(1), 133-148.
Elmore, R. F. (1979). Backward mapping: implementation research and policy decisions. Political Science Quarterly, 94(4), 601-616.
Garcia-Zamor, J. C. (1996). Obstacles to public policy implementation in the third world. Advances in Developmental Policy Studies, 1, 197-209.
Grimmelikhuijsen, S., Jilke, S., Olsen, A. L., & Tummers, L. (2017). Behavioral public administration: Combining insights from public administration and psychology. Public Administration Review, 77(1), 45-56.
Guba, E. G. (1981). Criteria for assessing the trustworthiness of naturalistic inquiries. ECTJ, 29(2), 75-91.
Handler, J. F. (1996). Down from Bureaucracy: The Ambiguity of Privatization and Empowerment, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
Ifeagwazi, C. M., Chukwuorji, J. C., & Zacchaeus, E. A. (2015). Alienation and psychological wellbeing: Moderation by resilience. Social Indicators Research, 120(2), 525-544.
Lipsky, M. (1983). Street-level bureaucracy: the dilemmas of the individual in public service, New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Marx, K. (1961 [1844]). Alienated labor, in K. Marx (ed.), Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844. Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House, 67–83.
May, P. J., &Winter, S. C. (2009). Politicians, managers, and street-level bureaucrats: Influences on policy implementation. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 19(3), 453-476.
Pandey, S. K. and G. A. Kingsley (2000). Examining red tape in public and private organizations: alternative explanations from a social psychological model. Journal of Public Administration Research andTheory, 10(4), 779–800.
Podsakoff, P. M., L. J. Williams and W. D. Todor (1986). Effects of organizational formalization on alienation among professionals and nonprofessionals. Academy of Management Journal, 29(4), 820–31.
Seeman, M. (1959). On the meaning of alienation. American Sociological Review, 24(6), 783-791.
Thomann, E. (2015). Is output performance all about the resources? A fuzzy‐set qualitative comparative analysis of street‐level bureaucrats in Switzerland. Public Administration, 93(1), 177-194.
Tummers, L., Bekkers, V., & Steijn, B. (2007). Policy alienation of Dutch public sector professionals: an exploratory study, Retrieved from
Tummers, L., Bekkers, V., & Steijn, B. (2009). Policy alienation of public professionals: Application in a new public management context. Public Management Review, 11(5), 685-706.‏
Tummers, L. (2011). Explaining the willingness of public professionals to implement new policies: A policy alienation framework. International Review of Administrative Sciences, 77(3), 555-581.
Tummers, L. (2012). Policy alienation of public professionals: The construct and its measurement. Public Administration Review, 72(4), 516-525.
Tummers, L. G. (2012). Policy alienation: Analyzing the experiences of public professionals with new policies. Rotterdam: Erasmus University Rotterdam, Forthcoming.
Tummers, L. (2013). Policy alienation and the power of professionals: Confronting new policies. Edward Elgar Publishing.
Tummers, L., Bekkers, V., van Thiel, S., & Steijn, B. (2015). The effects of work alienation and policy alienation on behavior of public employees. Administration & Society, 47(5), 596-617.
Van Engen, N., Tummers, L., Bekkers, V., & Steijn, B. (2016). Bringing history in: Policy accumulation and general policy alienation. Public Management Review, 18(7), 1085-1106.
Van der Voet, J., Steijn, B., & Kuipers, B. S. (2017). What’s in it for others? The relationship between prosocial motivation and commitment to change among youth care professionals. Public Management Review, 19(4), 443-462.
Van Meter, D. S., & Van Horn, C. E. (1975). The policy implementation process a conceptual framework. Administration & Society, 6(4), 445-488.
Yıldız, B., & Alpkan, L. (2015). A theoretical model on the proposed predictors of destructive deviant workplace behaviors and the mediator role of alienation. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 210, 330-338.