تدوین چارچوبی برای تاب‏ آوری معیشت عشایر کوچنده (مورد مطالعه: ایل قشقایی)

نوع مقاله: مقاله استخراج شده از پایان نامه

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار دانشکده مدیریت و حسابداری؛ دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی (نویسنده مسئول)

2 استاد دانشکده مدیریت و حسابداری؛ دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی

3 استاد دانشکده علوم اجتماعی؛ دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی

4 دانشجوی دکتری دانشکده مدیریت و حسابداری، دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی

چکیده

الگوی معیشت عشایری در کشور ما در حال حاضر با بحران جدی مواجه است. این در حالیست که اجبار جامعه عشایری برای گذار از معیشت کوچ‏ نشینی تحت تاثیر فشارها و تنش‏ ها پیامدهای نامطلوبی را برای کیفیت زندگی آنان به همراه دارد. اما معیشت عشایری بعنوان بخشی از میراث قومی کشور این قابلیت را دارد که از گردشگری برای تنوع‏ بخشی به اقتصاد خود کمک بگیرد؛ ضمن این‏که، رونق گردشگری عشایری به تنوع محصول گردشگری کشور می ‏انجامد. خط‏ مشی‏ گذاری و برنامه ‏ریزی برای بهره‏ مندی از قابلیت‏ های جامعه عشایری در گردشگری، در گرو حفظ معیشت عشایری و مستلزم شناخت عواملی است که به ارتقای ظرفیت تاب ‏آوری آن خواهد انجامید. با این حال، پژوهش پیرامون تاب‏ آوری معیشت عشایری تاکنون مغفول مانده ‏است. هدف این پژوهش شناسایی عواملی است که به تاب‏‏ آوری معیشت عشایری می انجامد. هم‏چنین، این پژوهش کوشیده‏ تا با مفهوم‏ سازی نظریه چشم ‏انداز ثبات به بسط مبانی نظری تاب‏ آوری معیشت کمک نماید. روش پژوهش، مطالعه موردی ‏است و داده ‏ها از طریق مشاهده مستقیم، مصاحبه نیمه‏ ساختاریافته با عشایر کوچنده ایل قشقایی و مطلعین کلیدی و مطالعه داده های غیرتعاملی (آرشیوی) گردآوری شدند. برای تحلیل مصاحبه ها از روش تحلیل تماتیک استفاده شد. در نهایت، عوامل شکل‏ دهنده تاب‏ آوری معیشت عشایر کوچنده بر مبنای نظریه چشم ‏‏انداز ثبات، در قالب هفت مقوله دسته‏ بندی شدند؛ به طوری که ویژگی‏ های معیشت و عوامل محدودکننده درونی گویای مقاومت؛ عوامل تواناساز درونی بیان کننده گستره، عوامل مرتبط با کیفیت زندگی گویای تزلزل سیستم معیشت و عوامل محدودکننده بیرونی، عوامل تواناساز بیرونی و تغییرات و تنش‏ ها منطبق بر مفهوم پانارشی بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

A Framework for Livelihood Resilience of Nomadic Communities (A Case Study in Qashqai Tribe)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mahmoud Ziaee 1
  • Abolhassan Faghihi 2
  • Mahmoud Jomepour 3
  • Fatemeh Shekari 4
1 Department of Tourism Management, Faculty of Management and Accounting, Allameh Tabataba'i University
2 Faculty of Management and Economics; Islamic Azad University; Science and Research Branch
3 Department of Social Planning; Faculty of Social Sciences; Allameh Tabataba'i University
4 Department of Tourism Management; Faculty of Management and Accounting,Allameh Tabataba'i University
چکیده [English]

Iran’s Nomadic communities are now facing major challenges regarding their livelihoods. The forced transition of their settled lifestyle due to these challenges can have undesirable outcomes for their quality of life. The nomadic communities as a part of Iran’s ethnic heritage has the capacity to employ tourism for diversifying its economy and the country’s tourism product diversity. Therefore, the importance of identifying those factors that contribute to the community’s capability to build their livelihood resilience is justified. This paper aims at exploring the factors that can improve nomadic communities resilient. Furthermore, this study attempts to present a livelihood resilience framework with a particular focus on nomads. So, the research contributes to the theoretical and applied dimensions of livelihood resilience. To accomplish these goals, a qualitative contextual case study method was employed. We used  semi-structured interviews with Qashqai nomads and key informants. In addition,   direct observation and unobtrusive  data were collected in the study. We used  thematic analysis to interpret interviews. Based on stability landscape theory,  factors contribute to the nomadic livelihood resilience were categorized as seven main themes, including: livelihood characteristics and internal constraints (implying resistance); internal enablers (implying adaptive capacity); quality of life (implying precariousness); external constraints; external enablers and changes and stresses (implying panarchy theory).

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Livelihood resilience
  • Stability landscape
  • Nomadic tourism
  • Qashqai tribe
  • thematic analysis
Adger, W. Neil. (2006). Vulnerability. Global environmental change, 16(3), 268–281.

Akamani, Kofi. (2012). A community resilience model for understanding and assessing the sustainability of forest-dependent communities. Human Ecology Review, 19(2), 99-109.

Allen, Craig R.; Angeler, David G.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Gunderson, Lance H.; & Holling, C. S. (2014). Panarchy: Theory and Application. Ecosystems, 17(4), 578-589. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-013-9744-2

Ambelu, A.; Birhanu, Z.; Tesfaye, A.; Berhanu, N.; Muhumuza, C.; Kassahun, W.; … Woldemichael, K. (2017). Intervention pathways towards improving the resilience of pastoralists: A study from Borana communities, southern Ethiopia. Weather and Climate Extremes, Article in Press. https://doi.org/DOI: 10.1016/j.wace.2017.06.001

Bec, Alexandra. (2016). Harnessing resilience for tourism and resource-based communities. Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW.

Becken, Susanne. (2013). Developing a framework for assessing resilience of tourism sub-systems to climatic factors. Annals of Tourism Research, 43, 506-528. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2013.06.002

Berkes, F; Colding, J; & Folke, C. (2003). ,  Navigating social-ecological systems: Building resilience for complexity and change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Berkes, Fikret; & Ross, Helen. (2013). Community resilience: toward an integrated approach. Society & Natural Resources, 26(1), 5–20.

Berkes, Fikret; & Seixas, Cristiana S. (2005). Building Resilience in Lagoon Social–Ecological Systems: A Local-level Perspective. Ecosystems, 8(8), 967-974. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-005-0140-4

Braun, Virginia; & Clarke, Victoria. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2), 77-101. https://doi.org/10.1191/1478088706qp063oa

Calgaro, Emma; Lloyd, Kate; & Dominey-Howes, Dale. (2014). From vulnerability to transformation: a framework for assessing the vulnerability and resilience of tourism destinations. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 22(3), 341-360. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2013.826229

Carpenter, Stephen R.; Westley, Frances; & Turner, Monica G. (2005). Surrogates for resilience of social–ecological systems. Ecosystems, 8(8), 941–944.

Carpenter, Steve; Walker, Brian; Anderies, J. Marty; & Abel, Nick. (2001). From Metaphor to Measurement: Resilience of What to What? Ecosystems, 4(8), 765-781. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-001-0045-9

Cochrane, Janet. (2010). The Sphere of Tourism Resilience. Tourism Recreation Research, 35(2), 173-185. https://doi.org/10.1080/02508281.2010.11081632

Davoudi, Simin; Shaw, Keith; Haider, L. Jamila; Quinlan, Allyson E.; Peterson, Garry D.; Wilkinson, Cathy; … Davoudi, Simin. (2012). Resilience: A Bridging Concept or a Dead End? “Reframing” Resilience: Challenges for Planning Theory and Practice Interacting Traps: Resilience Assessment of a Pasture Management System in Northern Afghanistan Urban Resilience: What Does it Mean in Planning Practice? Resilience as a Useful Concept for Climate Change Adaptation? The Politics of Resilience for Planning: A Cautionary Note. Planning Theory & Practice, 13(2), 299-333. https://doi.org/10.1080/14649357.2012.677124

Faghihi, Abolhassan. (1986). Bureaucracy and Politics Under the Shah: A Study of the Bureacracy in the Context of Iran’s Politics 1941-1978. State University of New York at Albany, New York, USA.

Folke, Carl. (2006). Resilience: The emergence of a perspective for social–ecological systems analyses. Global Environmental Change, 16(3), 253-267. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2006.04.002

Folke, Carl; Carpenter, Steve; Elmqvist, Thomas; Gunderson, Lance; Holling, C. S.; & Walker, Brian. (2002). Resilience and Sustainable Development: Building Adaptive Capacity in a World of Transformations. AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment, 31(5), 437-440. https://doi.org/10.1579/0044-7447-31.5.437

Forster, J.; Lake, I. R.; Watkinson, A. R.; & Gill, J. A. (2014). Marine dependent livelihoods and resilience to environmental change: A case study of Anguilla. Marine Policy, 45, 204-212. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2013.10.017

Gallopín, Gilberto C. (2006). Linkages between vulnerability, resilience, and adaptive capacity. Global Environmental Change, 16(3), 293-303. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2006.02.004

Hanazaki, Natalia; Berkes, Fikret; Seixas, Cristiana S.; & Peroni, Nivaldo. (2013). Livelihood Diversity, Food Security and Resilience among the Caicara of Coastal Brazil. Human Ecology; New York, 41(1), 153-164. https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10745-012-9553-9

Holladay, Patrick Joseph; & Powell, Robert Baxter. (2013). Resident perceptions of social–ecological resilience and the sustainability of community-based tourism development in the Commonwealth of Dominica. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 21(8), 1188-1211. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2013.776059

Holling, C. S. (1973). Resilience and Stability of Ecological Systems. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 4(1), 1-23. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.es.04.110173.000245

Holling, C. S. (2001). Understanding the Complexity of Economic, Ecological, and Social Systems. Ecosystems, 4(5), 390-405. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-001-0101-5

Jarzebski, Marcin Pawel; Tumilba, Victor; & Yamamoto, Hirokazu. (2016). Application of a tri-capital community resilience framework for assessing the social–ecological system sustainability of community-based forest management in the Philippines. Sustainability Science, 11(2), 307-320. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11625-015-0323-7

Magis, Kristen. (2010). Community Resilience: An Indicator of Social Sustainability. Society & Natural Resources, 23(5), 401-416. https://doi.org/10.1080/08941920903305674

Marschke, M. (2005). Livelihood in context: learning with Cambodian fishers. University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

Marschke, M.J.; & Berkes, F. (2006). Exploring strategies that build livelihood resilience: A case from Cambodia. Ecology and Society, 11(1).

McMillen, H.; Campbell, L.K.; Svendsen, E.S.; & Reynolds, R. (2016). Recognizing stewardship practices as indicators of social resilience: In living memorials and in a community garden. Sustainability (Switzerland), 8(8). https://doi.org/10.3390/su8080775

Mishra, A.; Ghate, R.; Maharjan, A.; Gurung, J.; Pathak, G.; & Upraity, A.N. (2017). Building ex ante resilience of disaster-exposed mountain communities: Drawing insights from the Nepal earthquake recovery. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 22, 167-178. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2017.03.008

Munt, Ian. (1994). The `Other’ Postmodern Tourism: Culture, Travel and the New Middle Classes. Theory, Culture & Society, 11(3), 101-123. https://doi.org/10.1177/026327694011003005

Norris, Fran H.; Stevens, Susan P.; Pfefferbaum, Betty; Wyche, Karen F.; & Pfefferbaum, Rose L. (2008). Community resilience as a metaphor, theory, set of capacities, and strategy for disaster readiness. American journal of community psychology, 41(1-2), 127–150.

Panarchy. (n.d.). Retrieved November 06, 2017, from https://www.resalliance.org/panarchy

Prado, Deborah Santos; Seixas, Cristiana Simão; & Berkes, Fikret. (2015). Looking back and looking forward: Exploring livelihood change and resilience building in a Brazilian coastal community. Ocean & Coastal Management, 113, 29-37. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2015.05.018

Quandt, Amy Kathryn. (2017). Building Livelihood Resilience in Semi-Arid Kenya: What Role Does Agroforestry Play? University of Colorado at Boulder.

Rampini, Costanza. (2016). Impacts of hydropower development along the Brahmaputra River in Northeast India on the resilience of downstream communities to climate change impacts. University of California, Santa Cruz.

Ross, H.; & Berkes, F. (2013). Community Resilience: A Rejoinder to Debra J. Davidson. Society and Natural Resources, 26(1), 25-29. https://doi.org/10.1080/08941920.2012.749769

Sarkki, S.; Komu, T.; Heikkinen, H.I.; García, N.A.; Lépy, É.; & Herva, V.-P. (2016). Applying a synthetic approach to the resilience of finnish reindeer herding as a changing livelihood. Ecology and Society, 21(4). https://doi.org/10.5751/ES-08819-210414

Saxena, A; Guneralp, B; Bailis, R; Yohe, G; & Oliver, C. (2016). Evaluating the resilience of forest dependent communities in Central India by combining the sustainable livelihoods framework and the cross scale resilience analysis. CURRENT SCIENCE, 110(7), 1195-1207.

Smit, Barry; & Wandel, Johanna. (2006). Adaptation, adaptive capacity and vulnerability. Global Environmental Change, 16(3), 282-292. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2006.03.008

Sok, S.; & Yu, X. (2015). Adaptation, resilience and sustainable livelihoods in the communities of the Lower Mekong Basin, Cambodia. International Journal of Water Resources Development, 31(4), 575-588. https://doi.org/10.1080/07900627.2015.1012659

Speranza, Chinwe Ifejika; Wiesmann, Urs; & Rist, Stephan. (2014). An indicator framework for assessing livelihood resilience in the context of social–ecological dynamics. Global Environmental Change, 28, 109-119. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2014.06.005

Stanford, R.J.; Wiryawan, B.; Bengen, D.G.; Febriamansyah, R.; & Haluan, J. (2017). The fisheries livelihoods resilience check (FLIRES check): A tool for evaluating resilience in fisher communities. Fish and Fisheries, Article in press. https://doi.org/DOI: 10.1111/faf.12220

Tanner, Thomas; Lewis, David; Wrathall, David; Bronen, Robin; Cradock-Henry, Nick; Huq, Saleemul; … Thomalla, Frank. (2015). Livelihood resilience in the face of climate change. Nature Climate Change, 5(1), 23-26. https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate2431

Thulstrup, Andreas Waaben. (2015). Livelihood Resilience and Adaptive Capacity: Tracing Changes in Household Access to Capital in Central Vietnam. World Development, 74, 352-362. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2015.05.019

Walker, Brian; Holling, C. S.; Carpenter, Stephen; & Kinzig, Ann. (2004). Resilience, Adaptability and Transformability in Social–ecological Systems. Ecology and Society, 9(2). https://doi.org/10.5751/ES-00650-090205